Framework of EHS laws and regulations in Thailand.


Overview

Thailand, one of the leading industrialized countries in Southeast Asia, has been tackling with various environmental pollution issues emerging along with economic growth. Emissions from industrial facilities and exhaust gas from mobile sources has been causing air pollution in large cities and industrial parks. Chao Phraya River, canals and waterways in urban areas has been deteriorated due to urbanization and economic activities. Social interests on management of increasing wastes, including municipal wastes, industrial wastes, waste electrical and electronic equipments, infectious wastes, as well as noise and odor issues has been risen.

Widely known legal action against industries in Map Ta Phut, Rayong province, caused a huge impact to government and private entities. In September 2009, the Central Administrative Court of Thailand ordered the suspension of 76 industrial projects in Map Ta Phut industrial estate, one of the largest petrochemical complex in the world, totaling approximately $10 billion due to environmental and health concerns. Although many projects have been reopened lately, this Map Ta Phut pollution issue once again highlighted the importance and risks of environmental management in Thailand.

Thailand established legal framework to regulate environmental issues as follows;

Summary of EHS laws in Thailand

LAW Field Ministry in charge Overview
Enhancement and Conservation of National Environmental Quality Act, B.E. 2535 (1992) Pollution control Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Enhancement and Conservation of National Environmental Quality Act, B.E. 2535 is a fundamental environmental law in Thailand. The act was enacted in 1992 to replace previous Enhancement and Conservation of National Environmental Quality Act of 1975. It covers wide range of pollution issues such as water pollution, air pollution, waste management, noise and vibration. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) scheme, which is an obligation for specific type of industrial projects, infrastructure projects , condominiums, and etc. is implemented under this Act.
Factory Act, B.E. 2535 (1992) Environmental management within factory Ministry of Industry Factory Act, B.E. 2535 (1992) was enacted in 1992 to replace previous Factory Act of 1969. One of the main purposes of the act is to regulate environmental and safety concerns associated with factory establishment and operation. Subsidiary regulations and notifications published by Ministry of Industry prescribes various requirements for EHS management such as;

  • Appointment of environmental personnel
  • Report of pollutants release
  • Wastewater discharge and air emission standard
  • Industrial waste management standard
  • Soil and groundwater monitoring and countermeasures
  • Noise standard
  • Fire prevention and management
  • Appointment of pressure gas controller
Hazardous Substance Act, B.E. 2535 (1992) Chemical management Ministry of Industry and other relevant ministries Hazardous Substance Act, B.E. 2535 (1992) was enacted in 1992 to replace previous Poisons Act of 1967. The act established a legal base of chemical management in Thailand. Industries which manufacture, import, export or possess hazardous chemicals shall conduct chemical business in accordance with this act and its subsidiary regulations and notifications. The act regulates chemicals for agriculture, fisheries, livestock, food and medical purpose, industry and energy business.
Public Health Act, B.E. 2535 (1992) Public health Ministry of Public Health Public Health Act, B.E. 2535 (1992) was enacted in 1992 to replace previous Public Health Act of 1941. The purpose of the act is to assure health, hygiene and living environment of citizens. The act prescribes duties of the local municipalities as well as the private entities. Municipal wastes are managed by local municipalities under this act. Business detrimental to health, 13 business categories defined by the subsidiary notification, shall be carried out in accordance with the requirement of the act.
Occupational Safety, Health and Environment Act B.E. 2554 (2011) Occupational safety and health Ministry of Labor Occupational Safety, Health and Environment Act B.E. 2554 was established to assure safe working condition at workplace. The act prescribes duties of the central and local government as well as those of employers and employees. Subsidiary regulations and notifications published by Ministry of Labor prescribes various requirements such as;

  • Appointment of safety officer
  • Responsibilities of OSH committee
  • Establishment of Safety department
  • Disaster management
  • Chemical safety
Energy Conservation Promotion Act B.E. 2535 (1992) Energy conservation and efficiency Ministry of Energy Energy Conservation Promotion Act B.E. 2535 (1992) is a fundamental energy management law in Thailand. Designated factory or building under the act is required to appoint person responsible for energy and implement energy management system. Energy efficiency of the equipments is promoted and encouraged.
Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand Act, B.E.2522 (1979) Environmental management within factory located in industrial estates Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand Act, B.E.2522 (1979) establishes rules and standards for industries located in industrial estates. As environmental management is a part of the scope of the act, factories located in industrial estates shall carry out their activities in accordance with the act.

 

Environmental Standards

Notification under NEQA of 1992 Published
Notification of the National Environmental Board, No. 8, B.E. 2537 (1994), issued under the Enhancement and Conservation of National Environmental Quality Act B.E.2535 (1992) Surface Water Quality Standards 1994.02.24
Notification of the National Environmental Board: Marine Water Quality Standards 2017.11.23
Notification of the National Environmental Board, No. 20, B.E. 2543 (2000), issued under the Enhancement and Conservation of National Environmental Quality Act B.E.2535 (1992) Groundwater Quality Standards 2000.09.15
Notification of the National Environmental Board, No. 10, B.E. 2538 (1995), issued under the Enhancement and Conservation of National Environmental Quality Act B.E.2535 (1992) Ambient air quality standard 1995.05.25
Notification of the National Environmental Board, No. 24, B.E. 2547 (2004), issued under the Enhancement and Conservation of National Environmental Quality Act B.E.2535 (1992) Ambient air quality standard amendment 2004.09.22
Notification of the National Environmental Board, No. 28, B.E. 2550 (2007), issued under the Enhancement and Conservation of National Environmental Quality Act B.E.2535 (1992) Ambient air quality standard amendment 2007.05.14
Notification of the National Environmental Board, No. 33, B.E. 2552 (2009), issued under the Enhancement and Conservation of National Environmental Quality Act B.E.2535 (1992) Ambient air quality standard amendment 2009.08.14
Notification of the National Environmental Board, No. 36, B.E. 2553 (2010), issued under the Enhancement and Conservation of National Environmental Quality Act B.E.2535 (1992) Ambient air quality standard amendment 2010.03.24
Notification of the National Environmental Board, No. 12, B.E. 2538 (1995), issued under the Enhancement and Conservation of National Environmental Quality Act B.E.2535 (1992) Sulfur Dioxide Standard in Ambient Air 1995.07.13
Notification of the National Environmental Board, No. 21, B.E. 2544 (2001), issued under the Enhancement and Conservation of National Environmental Quality Act B.E.2535 (1992) Sulfur Dioxide Standard in Ambient Air amendment 2001.04.30
Notification of the National Environmental Board, No. 30, B.E. 2550 (2007), issued under the Enhancement and Conservation of National Environmental Quality Act B.E.2535 (1992) VOC Standard in Ambient Air 2007.09.28
Notification of the National Environmental Board on Carbon Disulfide Standard in General Ambient Air 2017.09.20
Notification of the National Environmental Board, No. 25, B.E. 2547 (2004), issued under the Enhancement and Conservation of National Environmental Quality Act B.E.2535 (1992) Soil quality standard 2004.10.20
Notification of Environmental Board No. 15 B.E.2540 (1997) under the Conservation and Enhancement of National Environmental Quality Act B.E.2535 (1992) Ambient noise standard 1997.04.03

 

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