1. Air Quality Protection and Management Area

The Regulation classifies the Air Quality Protection and Management Area, which is known as WPPMU, into several classes. Usage of such different WPPMU classes are restricted as follows:

  • WPPMU class I: Preservation of clean air only
  • WPPMU class II: Residential, commercial, agriculture, plantation or equivalent activities
  • WPPMU class II: Industrial or equivalent activities


2. Standards for stationary emission sources

  • The ministry has set up air quality standards for both low-impact emission activities and high-impact emission activities.
  • Low-impact emission activities do not need to obtain approval and are regulated by the ministry’s emission standards while high-impact emission activities shall obtain Technical Approval for exhaust gas emission
  • Application for Technical Approval shall contain results of study on:
    • Emission source identification
    • Meteorology data
    • Initial state of environment that will be affected
    • Calculation on emission load of the planned activities
    • Dispersal simulation
    • Mass balance calculation
    • Main raw materials and supporting materials
    • Efficiency calculation
    • Emission impact
    • Emission quality value
    • Production process
    • Emission control technology
    • Energy consumption
    • Plan on emission management
    • Plan on emission monitoring and air quality monitoring
  • Technical Approval content:
    1. Technical standards to be fulfilled on exhaust gas emission
      • Parameters and numerical thresholds for exhaust gas emission
      • Emission control facility design
      • Sampling point’s location
      • Emission source to be monitored (name and location)
      • Facilities and equipment to take sample
      • Location and spot for air quality monitoring
      • Obligation of business operator (e.g. to monitor emission and air quality periodically, to conduct reduction or reuse of emission)
      • Prohibition (e.g. direct discharge of emission without treatment, sudden discharge, non-fugitive discharge without chimney, etc.)
    2. Standards for labor resources
      • Person in charge for air pollution control
      • Operator of emission control facility
      • Other certified personnel based on specific needs
    3. Environmental management system
      Environmental management shall be conducted through the following steps:

      • Planning (defining the scope, system, and policy of air pollution control, etc)
      • Implementation (monitoring, measuring, analyzing, etc)
      • Inspection (evaluation of compliance, periodic internal audit, evaluation on organizational and management system to ensure efficacy of such activities)
      • Corrective/follow-up actions (for non-compliance or ineffectivity in the system)
  • Monitoring of emission quality shall be conducted manually, and/or automatically and continuously. The Ministry will decide which business sector needs to perform automatic and continuous monitoring. Manual measurement is conducted by registered laboratories while automatic measurement is conducted by using calibrated emission monitoring equipment.


3. Standards for mobile emission sources

  • Mobile emission sources contain:
    • Automotive industry’s products (new and existing engines)
    • Land transportation (road and non-road)
    • Heavy equippment utilization
  • Compliance with emission standards shall be confirmed as follows:
    • For automotive industry’s products, compliance with applicable standards shall be confirmed by laboratories accredited by National Committee of Acsreditation or accreditation committes who are signatory of mutual approval convention in Asia Pacific Accreditation Cooperation (APAC) or Internatioan Laboratoirum Accreditation Coopertaion (ILAC)
    • For non-road land transportation equipment and heavy equipment, comfirmation shall be conducted by certified personnel
    • For road-based land transportation, emission standards apply only to vehicles that have been used for more than 3 years. Measurement shall be conducted by cerfified personnel. Compliance of emission standard will be used as the basis for vehicle tax


4. Standards for disturbance emission

  • Regulated disturbance consists of noise, smell and vibration
  • Every business entity shall conduct disturbance test by using laboratories registered with the ministry and certified personnel
  • Every business entity needs to internalize the cost for emission control and air quality management into their production and/or operational cost. The activities of which costs shall be internalized include:
    • Air pollution prevention
    • Development of low emision technology
    • Use of clean fuel
    • Capacity building
    • Other activities that support efforts on air pollution control


5. Emission trading system

The minister will develop emission quota trading system, which allows Business entities to buy other business entity’s emission quota allocated if they have exceeded their limits.


6. Ambient air quality standard

Ambient air quality standard is given in Annex VII of this Regulation, meanwhile emission quality standards for each activity are set in separate MoEF ministrial regulations (e.g., emission standard for thermal power plant is regulated in MoEF regulation No. P.15/MENLHK/Setjen/KUM.1/4/2019)


Government Regulation No. 22 of 2021 on Environmental Protection and Management: