The greatest concern for air quality control in Indonesia is the exhaust gas emissions from automobiles and motorcycles. In particular, urban areas including the capital Jakarta face increasingly serious air pollution due to the continuous traffic congestion, resulted from undeveloped public transportation (trains and subways) network. A survey of air pollution at major roads across the country, which was conducted by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry in 2016, ranked the most polluted cities in Indonesia as below.[1] In general, the main cause for such serious air pollution is exhaust gas emission from automobiles. But for Batam, which ranked as the most polluted city for sulfur dioxide (SO2), officials from the Ministry of Environment and Forestry says that the main pollution source in the city is stationary emission source, such as industrial facilities and power plants.

Indonesia’s most polluted city ranking

Most polluted city
1st 2nd 3rd
CO2 Central Jakarta Manado Gorontalo
NO2 West Jakarta Batam Semarang
HC Medan Surakarta Batam
PM (particulate matter) Medan Yogyakarta Denpasar
SO2 Batam Banjarmasin Tanjung Pinang

In addition, according to data published by Greenpeace in 2017, the level of air pollutant (PM2.5) in Jakarta was five times higher than the “Safe” level defined by the World Health Organization (WHO).[2] Greenpeace Indonesia conducted an air quality (PM2.5 level) monitoring survey from February through to March 2017, covering a total of 19 sites in five regions: Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, and Bekasi. At all of these monitoring sites, measured pollutant levels exceeded WHO’s guideline value. Moreover, majority of these monitoring sites failed to meet Indonesia’s national environmental standards, which are less strict than WHO’s guidelines. The measured pollutant levels were considered to be dangerous even at monitoring sites with relatively larger green areas. The PM2.5 levels remained very high at most monitoring sites. In the last weeks of February and March 2017, the measured levels of PM2.5 at most monitoring sites largely exceeded WHO guideline value (for human health) and the national standard value (3.8 times and 5.3 times higher than the WHO guideline value at Paran and Warung buncit respectively). Only three out of all monitoring sites (Setiabudi, Permata Hijau, and Utan Kayu) met the national standard, which was lower than the WHO guideline value. In Kebagusan, Cibubur and Depok, which have relatively large green area, very high pollutant levels were observed. Temporal changes in the pollutant levels at these sites also showed only a few periods of time in which the PM2.5 level went below the WHO guideline value.

in Indonesia, air quality control is performed under the Law No. 32/2009 on Environmental Protection and Management and its subordinate ministerial regulations and decrees as shown in the below. In general, regulatory standards for stationary emission sources (e.g., factories) are stipulated in the Decree of Minister of the Environment No. 13/1995. However, for specific industries, separate regulations have been established. The most recent one is the emission standard for the cement industry, which was promulgated in 2017.

  • Law No. 32/2009 on Environmental Protection and Management
    A fundamental environment law, which regulates the environmental management in Indonesia generally.
    It also stipulates specific penalties.

    • Government Regulation No. 41/ 1999 on Air Pollution Control
      It defines a wide range of requirements for air pollution control
      Refers to both stationary and mobile emission sources.
      It defines specific air quality standards.

      • Decree of the Minister of Environment No. 13/1995 Concerning the Emission Standards for Stationary Sources
        (It gives emission standards for stationary sources covering 4 specific industries and other industries)
      • Regulation of the Minister of Environment No. 7/2007 Concerning Emission Standards for Stationary Sources of Steam Boiler
      • Regulation of the Minister of Environment No. 17/2008 Concerning Emission Standards for Stationary Sources of Ceramic Industry
      • Regulation of the Minister of Environment No. 18/2008 Concerning Emission Standards for Stationary Sources of Carbon Black Industry
      • Regulation of the Minister of Environment No. 21/2008 Concerning Emission Standards for Stationary Sources of Thermal Power Plant
      • Regulation of the Minister of Environment No. 13/2009 Concerning Emission Standards for Stationary Sources of Oil and Gas Industry Activities
      • Regulation of the Minister of Environment No. 7/2012 Concerning Emission Standards for Stationary Sources of Rayon Industry Activities
      • Regulation of the Minister of Environment No. 4/ 2014 Concerning Emission Standards for Stationary Sources of Mining Industry Activities
      • Regulation of the Minister of Environment and Forestry No. 70/ 2016 Concerning Emission Standards for Waste Incineration Activities
      • Regulation of the Minister of Environment and Forestry No. 19/ 2017 Concerning Emission Standards for Cement Industry

The core regulation on air quality control in the Indonesia is the Government Regulation No. 41/1999 on Air Pollution Control. This Regulation was set by the Minister of Environment (at the time of promulgation. Currently the Ministry of Environment and Forestry) in 1999 with the purpose of complementing air-quality related regulations that were promulgated before 1999. The Regulation No. 41/1999 mandated all companies and business activities that had already obtained air quality related licenses to comply with its requirements in at least two years after the enforcement.

The Regulation No. 41/1999 requires that the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, which is responsible for air pollution control, to establish the following standards and index. The National Ambient Air Quality Standards is stipulated in the Annex to the Regulation No. 41/1999. However, for other emission standards, each relevant subordinate regulation must be referred to. In particular, it should be noted that standards for stationary emission sources are established separately by industry sector.

  • National Ambient Air Quality Standards (Annex of the Regulation No. 41/1999)
  • Emission standards for stationary emission sources
  • Emission standards for mobile emission sources
  • Nuisance (noise, odor, vibration) level standards for stationery emission sources
  • Noise level standards for motored vehicle
  • Pollutant Standard Index

Business entities that are stationary emission sources (i.e., those operating factories, etc.) must comply with the ambient air quality standards, emission standards, and nuisance level standards (Article 30 of Government Regulation No. 41/1999). In addition, when any inspection is conducted by inspectors from each state or city, the business entity must approve the entry of inspectors and submit required documents and data to the inspectors (Article 48 of the same). In the event that a business entity causes an air pollution accident, the entity must bear all contamination recovery/management and rehabilitation costs (Article 54 of the same).

[1] Jakarta Post, Medan, Jakarta most polluted, December 15, 2016
http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2016/12/15/medan-jakarta-most-polluted.html

[2] Greenpeace Indonesia, Kualitas Udara Jabodetabek Buruk!, 4 April, 2017
http://www.greenpeace.org/seasia/id/press/releases/Kualitas-Udara-Jabodetabek-Buruk/


Index of Indonesia EHS

Framework of EHS laws and regulations in Indonesia.

Category Theme
Overall Overview, Environmental Standards
Indonesia, Organizations with Governing Environmental Regulations
Chemical Chemicals Control
Energy Energy Conservation
Waste Waste management
Air Air Quality Control
Water Water Quality Control
Soil Soil Pollution Control
OSH Occupational Safety and Health
Other Pollution Noise, Vibration, Offensive Odor Control