With urbanization, industrialization and a 7% economic growth rate, India is experiencing a rapid increase in the amount of waste produced, which is having a negative impact on the environment. In many cities, common municipal and industrial waste is also dumped near water systems, creating problems that contaminate those systems.

In India, waste generation in ‘Class 1 cities’ (cities with a population of 100,000 or more) accounts for 72.5% of the country’s total waste generation, of which the six largest cities (Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad) account for 18.35%.

Solid Waste Generation in Six Major Cities in India
Central Pollution Control Board: https://cpcb.nic.in/uploads/MSW/trend_46_cities_list.pdf

No. City Population (2011) Waste Generation(TPD)
1999-2000 2004-05 2010-11 2015-16
1 Mumbai 12,442,373 5,355 5,320 6,500 11,000
2 Delhi 11,034,555 400 5,922 6,800 8,700
3 Bangalore 8,443,675 200 1,669 3,700 3,700
4 Chennai 7,088,000 3,124 3,036 4,500 5,000
5 Hyderabad 6,731,790 1,566 2,187 4,200 4,000
6 Kolkata 4,496,694 3,692 2,653 3,670 4,000

India has enacted separate rules for different types of waste and, in 2016, India renewed these rules related to waste management including solid waste, hazardous waste, plastics, electronic and electrical equipment and construction waste, etc. These rules were established under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and have focused on effect of waste to environmental and human health.

For battery waste, the Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules, 2001 is in place and still in effect as of September 2020. Central government has published the draft of Battery Waste Management Rules, 2020, which will repeal the Rules, 2001, and is still under discussion.

The current legislation governing waste management in India is as follows.

Types of waste Rules
Solid waste Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016
Hazardous waste Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016
Plastic waste Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016
E-waste E-waste Management Rules, 2016
Medical waste Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules, 2016
Construction waste Construction and Demolition Waste Management Rules, 2016
Battery waste (lead acid battery) Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules, 2001