With urbanization, industrialization and a 7% economic growth rate, India is experiencing a rapid increase in the amount of waste produced, which is having a negative impact on the environment. In many cities, common municipal and industrial waste is also dumped near water systems, creating problems that contaminate those systems.

In India, waste generation in ‘Class 1 cities’ (cities with a population of 100,000 or more) accounts for 72.5% of the country’s total waste generation, of which the six largest cities (Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad) account for 18.35%.

Solid Waste Generation in Six Major Cities in India
Central Pollution Control Board: https://cpcb.nic.in/uploads/MSW/trend_46_cities_list.pdf

No. City Population (2011) Waste Generation(TPD)
1999-2000 2004-05 2010-11 2015-16
1 Mumbai 12,442,373 5,355 5,320 6,500 11,000
2 Delhi 11,034,555 400 5,922 6,800 8,700
3 Bangalore 8,443,675 200 1,669 3,700 3,700
4 Chennai 7,088,000 3,124 3,036 4,500 5,000
5 Hyderabad 6,731,790 1,566 2,187 4,200 4,000
6 Kolkata 4,496,694 3,692 2,653 3,670 4,000

India has enacted separate rules for different types of waste and, in 2016, India renewed these rules related to waste management including solid waste, hazardous waste, plastics, electronic and electrical equipment and construction waste, etc. These rules were established under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and have focused on effect of waste to environmental and human health.

For battery waste, the Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules, 2001 is in place and still in effect as of September 2020. Central government has published the draft of Battery Waste Management Rules, 2020, which will repeal the Rules, 2001, and is still under discussion.

The current legislation governing waste management in India is as follows.

Types of waste Rules
Solid waste Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016
Hazardous waste Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016
Plastic waste Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016
E-waste E-waste Management Rules, 2016
Medical waste Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules, 2016
Construction waste Construction and Demolition Waste Management Rules, 2016
Battery waste (lead acid battery) Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules, 2001


Related Reports

Date Title
2021-04-02 India announces the draft amendment of Plastic Waste Management Rules
Will ban disposable plastic products at national level
2021-03-29 India publishes amendment for allowing to import polyethylene waste from production processes
2020-12-15 India adds Hazira port for import of unshredded metallic scrap
17 ports in total
2020-10-17 India amends the responsibilities of State Gov. under hazardous waste rules
2020-07-03 Chemical Manufacturing Firm has contaminated soil for 15 years in Hyderabad (India)
2020-06-26 India introduces Bill to create National Council for Waste Management
2020-06-24 India announces proposed comprehensive battery waste management rules including lithium-ion batteries
2020-06-18 India – registration of Producer Responsibility Organisations under the E-waste (Management) Rules
As of the end of May 2020
2019-10-24 India publishes notification for prohibiting import of PET flakes in Trade Policy

Index of India EHS

Framework of EHS laws and regulations in India.

Category Theme
Overall Overview, Environmental Standards
India, Organizations with Governing Environmental Regulations
Chemical Chemical Management
Waste Waste Management
Energy Energy Efficiency Regulation of Products
Product Designs Product Designs in India
Water Water Pollution Control
Air Air Pollution Control
Other Pollution Noise, Vibration and Odour Control
OSH Occupational Safety and Health