The ASEAN State of Climate Change Report (ASCCR) of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations outlines the present status, outlook, and strategies to combat climate change impacts in the ASEAN region from 2030 to 2050. According to the report, ASEAN Member States (AMS) that were part of the top 10 countries most affected by extreme climate events during 1999–2018 were Myanmar, the Philippines, Vietnam, and Thailand. Myanmar was the most affected followed by the Philippines, Vietnam, and Thailand. Furthermore, the following factors contribute to the high climate change vulnerability of the AMS:

  • High level of extreme poverty, which is further aggravated by the COVID-19 pandemic;
  • High dependency of national economies on sectors that are directly affected by climate change, such as agriculture and other natural resources (e.g., the GDP of AMS reliant on agriculture is as high as 20%, and about 28% of the global rice crop and 31% of Asia’s rice is produced in the region);
  • Pre-existing damage due to climate disasters, such as droughts, typhoons, and floods (e.g., Myanmar was reported to have the highest loss from extreme weather-related events from 1999-2019 (0.83% of GDP), followed by the Philippines (0.57%), Vietnam (0.47%), and Thailand (0.87%));
  • Globalization of local risks through supply chains and transboundary rivers (e.g., the destruction of crop fields and pollution of transboundary rivers, such as the Mekong River, can affect the economy of the whole ASEAN region and other importing countries, such as the EU);
  • Highly concentrated economic activities in coastal areas (e.g., about 77% of population of the AMS are in coastal areas, and these areas constitute the GDP of the AMS for as high as 60%);
  • High inclination to migration within the AMS which can increase population density in cities; and
  • High deforestation in parts of ASEAN (e.g., deforestation rate is forecasted to increase by 40% by 2100 if no action is done).


Strategies and Vision of AMS for Climate Change

To combat the drastic negative effects climate change can bring about the AMS, each region of the ASEAN has been adapting and implementing visions and strategies to better equip themselves for the future, as listed in the table below.

Country Climate change adaptation strategy/vision Target year Areas of focus or description Reference document or government body
Myanmar Myanmar Climate Change Master Plan (2018-2030) 2030
  • Climate-smart agriculture
  • Livestock and fisheries
  • Natural resources management
  • Resilient cities and towns
  • Climate risk management and health
  • Education
  • Science and technology
Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation (2019)
Myanmar Sustainable Development Plan (2018-2030) 2030
  • Disaster risk reduction
  • Adoption of climate-resilient and environmentally sound adaptation technologies and climate-smart management practices in all sectors
  • Increase of adaptive capacity of vulnerable households, communities, and sectors
Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (2018)
Myanmar Climate Change Policy (2019) 2030 Inclusive in the policy is the statement regarding the achievement of the 2030 goal of climate-resilience to support inclusive and sustainable development National Report
Myanmar Climate Change Strategy (2018-2030) 2030 Inclusive in the strategy is the roadmap to materialize the Myanmar Climate Change Policy vision to be a climate-resilient society Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation  (2019)
Philippines Local climate change adaptation plan (LCCAP),
Climate Disaster Risk Assessment (CDRA),
and National Climate Risk Management Framework (NCRMF)
2030/2050 The LCCAP, CDRA, and NCRMF are currently being partially implemented and are targeted to be fully implemented in 2030 and 2050. National Report
Singapore Singapore’s Long-Term Low-Emissions Development Strategy 2050
  • Protecting coasts and water supplies
  • Alleviating floods
  • Enhancing ecological resilience
  • Resilient public health
  • Enhancing food security
  • Safe buildings and infrastructure
National Climate Change Secretariat (2020)
Singapore Green Plan (2030) 2030
  • Building up climate resilience by protecting its coastlines
  • Strengthening food security
  • Maintaining Singapore’s temperature to comfortable and acceptable human living conditions
Ministry of Sustainability and the Environment (2021)
Thailand Climate Change Master Plan (2015-2050) 2050
  • Enhancing adaptive capacity
  • Developing adaptation technologies
  • Nature conservation
  • Reducing inequality
  • Developing climate risk maps
  • Ecologically friendly restoration of coastal areas
  • Climate resilience index
  • Developing early warning systems for pests and the like
  • Enhancing forest coverage
  • Establishing national fund for climate change recovery
  • Integrated regional climate change action plans
  • Adaptation is focused in the following six sectors:
    1. Water resources, flood and drought management
    2. Agriculture and food security
    3. Tourism
    4. Public health
    5. Natural resources
    6. Human settlement and security
Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP, 2015)
Thailand 4.0 2036 This strategy aims to transform food and agriculture by raising competitiveness of farmers. Royal Thai Embassy (2021)
National Strategy
  • Promoting sustainable climate-friendly-based growth of society by adapting to prevent and reduce losses and damages caused by natural disasters and impacts of climate change
  • Developing preparedness and response systems for emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases caused by climate change
National Strategy Secretariat Office (2017)
National Adaptation Plan (NAP) 2018–2037 2037 The NAP includes six priority sectors:

  1. Water resource management
  2. Agriculture and food security
  3. Tourism
  4. Public health
  5. Natural resource management
  6. Human

settlements and security

Thailand’s updated Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC)
Vietnam National Climate Change Strategy 2050
  • Promotion of synergetic adaptation and mitigation actions
  • Ensuring food security
  • Enhancing climate change awareness
  • Strengthening financial mechanisms for resilience and international cooperation on climate change
  • Strengthen hydrometeorological observation systems and regulations in disaster-prone areas
  • Develop resilient crops and livestock
  • Insurance
  • Water resource development
  • Green and modern urban residential areas
  • Conservation of biodiversity
  • Developing information data systems
Government of Vietnam (2011)
National Green Growth Strategy 2050 Government of Vietnam (2012)
Strategy for Vietnam’s Low-emission Development and Green Growth by 2050 2050
Resolution No.55-NQ/TW 2045
  • Development of an early warning system by 2050, specifically to have a hydro-meteorological observation and forecasting and climate extreme warning system of advanced international level
  • Improvement of the integrated management procedures and strengthening of facilities for scientific exploitation
  • Protection and use of water resources in the context of climate change by 2050 for food and water resource security assurance
  • Enable suitable proactive response to sea level rise in vulnerable areas
  • Conservation of biodiversity by protecting and developing ecosystems and species resilient to climate change
  • Building communities to effectively respond to climate change
National Report
National Plan on Climate Change Adaptation for 2021–2030, with a vision towards 2050 2030/2050
  • Enhancing resilience of economic sectors, the community, and the ecosystem
  • Improving adaptive capacity of people and infrastructure
  • Ensuring security of food, energy, water, gender equality, social welfare, and public health
VietnamPlus (2020)


Collective Regional Adaptation and Mitigation Actions of the ASEAN Region

The progress of individual AMS for climate change resiliency is notable, and to streamline the process of the collective accomplishment and implementation of AMS’ strategies and visions, ASCCR outlines the priority future regional actions needed to be done by the ASEAN region for the mitigation of climate change impacts and adaptation of resilient economic transformation by 2050 and beyond, as listed below.


Priority regional adaptation measures:

  1. Promote risk and vulnerability assessment as a basis for adaptation planning;
  2. Develop best practice guidelines and roadmap for the diffusion of adaptation technologies;
  3. Strengthen the scientific information base;
  4. Mainstream adaptation into sectoral and development planning;
  5. Promote adaptation and mitigation co-benefits;
  6. Develop regional, national, and local adaptation plans;
  7. Sustain actions through public-private people partnerships (PPPP);
  8. Promote multi-stakeholder processes;
  9. Promote regional cooperation on adaptation;
  10. Set adaptation goals;
  11. Develop climate risk transfer system; and
  12. Enhance technology diffusion on adaptation.


Priority regional mitigation measures:

  1. Strengthen the scientific information base;
  2. Enhance collaboration on co-benefits research and actions;
  3. Establish a knowledge center hub on Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) for the AMS;
  4. Adopt an interdisciplinary approach for combating air pollution;
  5. Accelerate regional power interconnectivity to promote renewable energy in the region;
  6. Promote green recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic;
  7. Establish networks, groups of scientists, and communities of practice for mitigation;
  8. Promote regional cooperation on mitigation through specific regional activities and frameworks;
  9. Promote education and awareness raising for clean technology diffusion at all levels;
  10. Set long-term mitigation goals, targets, and roadmaps at regional, national, and local levels;
  11. Facilitate mitigation planning including addressing sectoral challenges; and
  12. Enhance access to international mitigation finance.



The ASCCR highlights the ongoing efforts of the AMS in addressing climate change through both adaptation and mitigation strategies, despite facing developmental obligations and various limitations in terms of finances, resources, and technology. Much of the progress achieved so far has been a result of grassroots efforts from the individual member states, but the increasing integration and cooperation among the ASEAN countries have significantly accelerated progress in recent years.

While acknowledging the progress, the report also emphasizes that there is still a lot of room to increase ambition for climate change adaptation and mitigation in the region. The proposed collective actions outlined in the report aims to enhance transparency and ambition from now to beyond 2050. This pathway will guide the entire region towards achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement while ensuring sustainable development on multiple fronts.

The ASCCR envisions a transformative pathway where adaptation and mitigation efforts will continue to progress side by side, complementing and reinforcing each other to address the challenges of climate change in the ASEAN region.


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